Discuss how classification systems have undergone several changes over a period of time?
The classification systems have undergone several changes with time. The first attempt of classification was made by Aristotle. He classified plants as herbs, shrubs, and trees. Animals, on the other hand, were classified on the basis of presence or absence of red blood cells. This system of classification failed to classify all the known organisms.
Therefore, Linnaeus gave a two kingdom system of classification. It consists of kingdom Plantae and kingdom Animalia. However, this system did not differentiate between unicellular and multicellular organisms and between eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Therefore, there were large numbers of organisms that could not be classified under the two kingdoms.
To solve these problems, a five kingdom system of classification was proposed by R.H Whittaker in 1969. On the basis of characteristics, such as cell structure, mode of nutrition, presence of cell wall, etc., five kingdoms, Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia were formed.
State two economically important uses of:
(a) Heterotrophic bacteria
(a) Heterotrophic bacteria
(1) They act as decomposers and help in the formation of humus.
(2) They help in the production of curd from milk.
(3) Many antibiotics are obtained from some species of bacteria.
(4) Many soil bacteria help in fixation of atmospheric nitrogen.
(1) Methane gas is produced from the dung of ruminants by the methanogens.
(2) Methanogens are also involved in the formation of biogas and sewage treatment.
The cell walls of diatoms are made of silica.
Their cell wall construction is known as frustule.
It consists of two thin overlapping shells that fit into each other such as a soap box.
When the diatoms die, the silica in their cell walls gets deposited in the form of diatomaceous earth.
This diatomaceous earth is very soft and quite inert. It is used in filtration of oils, sugars, and for other industrial purposes.
Algal bloom refers to an increase in the population of algae or blue-green algae in water, resulting in discoloration of the water body. This causes an increase in the biological oxygen demand (BOD), resulting in the death of fishes and other aquatic animals.
Red tides are caused by red dinoflagellates (Gonyaulax) that multiply rapidly. Due to their large numbers, the sea appears red in colour. They release large amounts of toxins in water that can cause death of a large number of fishes.
Viroids were discovered in 1917 by T.O. Denier. They cause potato spindle tuber disease. They are smaller in size than viruses. They also lack the protein coat and contain free RNA of low molecular weight.