→ Cereals provide us with carbohydrates. Also, they are a rich source of energy.
→ Pulses give us proteins.
→ Fruits and vegetables are a rich source of vitamins and minerals. A small amount of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats are also present in them.
Biotic factors such as pests, insects and diseases reduce the crop production. A pest causes damage to our crops by feeding. Weeds also reduce crop productivity by competing with the main crop for nutrients and light.
Similarly, abiotic factors such as temperature, wind, rain etc. affect the net crop production. For example droughts and floods have a great impact on crops sometimes, destroying the entire crop.
The desirable agronomic characteristics for crop improvements are:
→ Tallness and profuse branching in any fodder crop.
→ Dwarfness in cereals.
Macro-nutrients are those nutrients which are required in large quantities for growth and development of plants. Since they are required in large quantities, they are known as macro-nutrient. The six macro-nutrients required by plants are nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulphur.
Plants get nutrients from air, water, and soil. Soil is the major source of nutrients. Thirteen of these nutrients are available from soil. The remaining three nutrients (carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen) are obtained from air and water.