Total Questions :24

(i) Waste Land rules: All grazing lands were considered 'waste land' by the colonial rulers as they brought no revenue to them. If this land could be transformed into cultivated farmland, it would result in an increase in land revenue and production of crops such as jute, cotton and wheat. This is why the Waste Land rules were formulated. However, they sounded the death knell for pastoralists because an increase in cultivated land meant an obvious decline in pastures and a consequent loss of a means of livelihood for them.

(ii) Forests Acts:These were enacted to protect and preserve forests for timber which was of
commercial importance. These acts changed the life of pastoralists. They were now prevented from entering many forests that had earlier provided valuable forage for their cattle. They issued permits which monitored their entry and exit into forests. They could not stay in the forests as much as they liked because the permit specified the number of days and hours they could spend in the forests.

(iii) Criminal Tribes Act: The British government eyed nomadic people with suspicion and disregard on account of their continuous movement. They could not be tracked down or placed in one particular place, unlike rural people in villages who were easy to identify and control. Hence, the colonial power viewed nomadic tribes as criminal. The Criminal Tribes Act was passed in 1871 and it further ruined the lives of the pastoralists who were now forced to live in notified settlements and were disallowed from moving out without a government permit.

(iv) Grazing Tax: It was imposed by the colonial government to expand its revenue income. Pastoralists had to pay a tax on every animal they grazed on the pastures. This right was now auctioned out to contractors. They extracted as high a tax as they could, to recover the money they had paid to the state and earn as much profit as they could. Later the government itself started collecting taxes. This created problems for the pastoralists who were harassed by tax collectors. It also became an economic burden on them.

1. Nomadic Pastoralists are People Who

(a) Live in one place

(b) Move from one area to another

(c) Move from one place to another with their herds to earn a living

(d) Gonds, Dhurwas and Bhatros are some nomadic pastoralists of India

2. Pastoral Nomads of Jammu and Kashmir

(a) Bhotiyas

(b) Gujjar Bakarwals

(c) Sherpas

(d) Gaddis

3. Significant feature of nomadic pastoralists

(a) cycle of seasonal movement

(b) shifting cultivation

(c) live on the edges of forests

(d) continuously on the move

4- Bhabar

(a) Thick forests

(b) Semi-arid region

(c) Dry forested area

(d) Vast meadows

5. The cyclical movement of mountain pastoralists is defined by

(a) cold and snow

(b) dry season

(c) onset of monsoons

(d) prospects of trade

6. Bugyals are

(a) dry forested area below the foothills of Garhwal and Kumaun

(b) vast meadows in high mountains

(c) semi-arid region in the Central Plateau of Maharashtra

(d) swampy wet coastal tracts

7. Dhangars are pastoralists of

(a) Jammu and Kashmir

(b) Garhwal

(c) U.P. hills

(d) Maharashtra

8. Which of the following was not a reason for Konkani peasants welcoming the herders?

(a) Dhangar flocks fed on the stubble of the rabi crop

(b) They helped in kharif harvest

(c) Shepherds received supplies of rice

(d) They returned to the plateau with the onset of monsoons

9. The alternation of monsoon and dry season defined the rythm of

(a) Gaddis

(b) Gujjar Bakarwals

(c) Berbers

(d) Gollas

10. Pastoralists sustain by'

(a) herding

(b) cultivation

(c) trade

(d) all of these

11. In which of the following states are Banjara's to be found?

(a) U.P., Punjab, Andhra Pradesh

(b) Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh

(c) Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka

(d) U.P., Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir

ANSWERS 

1. (c) 2. (b) 3.  (a) 4. (c)  5. (a) 6. (6) 7. (d) 8. (a) 9. (d) 10. (d) 11. (b)